Intestinal Dyspepsia Syndrome (K30)

Definition and Causes:

Intestinal dyspepsia refers to a disruption in the digestive process in the upper part of the digestive system. It becomes evident that organic deformity or dysfunction in the esophagus, stomach, or small intestine plays a crucial role in the onset of this condition. Symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, heartburn, persist for more than three months in a year.

Functional dyspepsia: It is a psychosocial disease that occurs as a result of tension, emotional stress, anxiety, and depression.

Causes of Dyspepsia:

  • Unhealthy eating habits.
  • Consumption of medications that irritate the gastric mucosa.
  • Increased gastric acid secretion.
  • Activity of Helicobacter pylori bacteria on the inner walls of the stomach.
  • Dysfunction of the upper parts of the digestive system.
  • Vitamin deficiencies.
  • Deficiency of digestive enzymes necessary for the digestion of complex carbohydrates.

Secondary causes of dyspepsia include various gastrointestinal diseases, such as:

  • Gastritis.
  • Gastric and duodenal ulcers.
  • Hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.
  • Biliary tract infections (gallstones).
  • Pancreatic disorders.
  • Intestinal impact.
  • Malignant tumors and cancerous operations.

Symptoms of dyspepsia also appear in cases of allergic inflammatory response, stomach hernia, and esophageal hiatus with reflux.

According to the International Classification of Diseases-10, dyspepsia refers to diseases of the digestive system and is identified by code K30.

Classification of Dyspepsia:

Digestive Dyspepsia:

  • Fermentative Digestion: Resulting from increased intake of simple carbohydrates and some fermented fruits in the diet, leading to imbalance of microorganisms in the intestines.
  • Fatty Type: Associated with consuming large amounts of fatty food.
  • Putrefactive Type: Caused by an increase in the consumption of hard proteins in the diet.

Dyspepsia with Disorder of Gastric and Intestinal Motility: Food leaves the digestive system quickly, delaying in it.

Classification by Cause:

  • Digestive Dyspepsia.
  • Fermentative Dyspepsia.
  • Putrefactive Dyspepsia.
  • Toxic Dyspepsia.
  • Dyspepsia associated with various absorption syndromes (malabsorption).

Symptoms of Dyspepsia:

  • Most common symptoms include pain, burning in the upper part of the abdomen, and a rapid feeling of fullness during meals.
  • Sometimes nausea, vomiting, bloating, and flatulence.
  • In children, ingestion of low-quality expired food due to food poisoning.

Functional Pattern of the Disease:

  • With the ulcerative pattern of dyspepsia, pain syndrome appears in the upper part of the abdomen. Additionally, sharp pains may occur after a long period of food intake, especially at night.
  • Additionally, the condition may lead to a feeling of fullness quickly after eating a small amount of food. The feeling of heaviness and fullness in the stomach persists for a long time. This may be accompanied by nausea and abdominal bloating, and vomiting may occur as a means of relieving symptoms.
  • Vomiting-like pattern includes stomach burning, chest pain, belching, and regurgitation of acidic content from the stomach.
  • Nonspecific pattern: Dyspepsia symptoms are varied and cannot be classified under any of the mentioned patterns.

Diagnosis of Intestinal Dyspepsia Syndrome:

Diagnosis of functional dyspepsia:

  • The doctor takes a medical history and asks about the patient’s symptoms and their progression.
  • Blood analysis, liver and kidney function tests.
  • Chemical examination for Helicobacter pylori bacteria.
  • IgG antibody test for Helicobacter pylori in the blood.
  • 13C-urea breath test to detect Helicobacter pylori infection.
  • Measurement of gastric juice acidity over 24 hours.
  • Stool analysis to look for worm eggs, occult blood, and fecal assessment.
  • Imaging Diagnosis:
  • Ultrasonography (ultrasound) of abdominal organs.
  • Gastrointestinal endoscopy (fibrogastroscopy) with sampling of stomach and duodenal tissues for analysis.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT scan).

Functional Dyspepsia Diagnosis Criteria:

  • Complaints of pain and disturbances in the upper central abdomen area, where symptoms persist for a minimum of two weeks.
  • No organic structural changes are found in the digestive system based on examinations and imaging.

Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS):

Dietary Management:

  • A dietary plan is established upon confirming a digestive disorder, along with recommendations to correct lifestyle patterns.
  • Avoidance of fast food, fried and spicy food, caffeinated beverages.
  • Eating regularly and in small portions, at least five times a day, roughly at equal intervals.
  • Inclusion of adequate amounts of protein, vitamins, and fiber in the diet.

Lifestyle Modifications:

  • Improving daily routines, reducing stressful situations, and heavy physical burdens.
  • Avoiding harmful habits and leading a less sedentary lifestyle.
  • Engaging in sports and swimming can have a positive impact on the patient’s mental and emotional state.
Pharmacological Treatment:
  • Pharmacological treatment for functional forms aims to alleviate uncomfortable symptoms and reduce the frequency of flare-ups.
  • Depending on the clinical progression of the digestive disorder, medications from the group of acid reducers may be used to reduce stomach acidity, along with medications from the group of smooth muscle stimulants in the digestive system.