Mallory-Weiss Syndrome

Mallory-Weiss Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Mallory-Weiss syndrome refers to superficial tears in the mucous membrane of the lower esophagus and upper stomach caused by repeated vomiting, often accompanied by bleeding. This condition was first described in 1929 by Mallory and Weiss in 15 cases of alcoholics. Common causes include alcohol poisoning or excessive food intake, with evidence suggesting that the presence of a hiatal hernia may be a predisposing factor.


  • Bleeding may result in hematemesis (vomiting of blood), although severe bleeding is rare.
  • Melena (black, tarry stools) may also occur.


  • Diagnosis is usually made during endoscopy, with bleeding often effectively stopped during the procedure.
  • Differential diagnosis includes bleeding from the lungs and frothy blood in cases of cardiogenic asthma transitioning to pulmonary edema.


  • In most cases, bleeding stops spontaneously within 24-48 hours.
  • Conservative treatment includes cold therapy, acid suppressants, coagulation system stimulants, and oral aminocaproic acid.
  • Patients may be transferred by ambulance to the surgical department or emergency unit of a hospital.
  • Endoscopic therapy may be required in some cases.
  • Surgical intervention, such as gastric surgery or suturing the tear in the mucous membrane of the upper stomach, may be necessary in cases of recurrent bleeding.
  • Rarely does Mallory-Weiss syndrome lead to death.