About Testosterone Hormone:

Testosterone is a steroid hormone belonging to the class of androgens. It is primarily produced in the testes in males and contributes to the timely maturation of the reproductive system and the development of secondary sexual characteristics (such as deep voice, facial, pubic, and underarm hair growth). In adulthood, the hormone plays a role in regulating sperm maturation and aids in sexual desire and erection.

Women produce testosterone in much smaller amounts. It is synthesized in the adrenal cortex and ovaries, quickly converting to estradiol, and participates in regulating sexual desire and egg maturation. The hormone also promotes muscle mass increase with physical activity, and growth rate correlates directly with its concentration. Testosterone production is regulated by luteinizing hormone in the pituitary gland.

Signs and Symptoms of Testosterone Imbalance:

  • In men, testosterone deficiency manifests as reduced sexual desire, erectile dysfunction, and higher voice pitch. If the problem occurs during sexual maturation, the process significantly slows down. Severe and persistent deficiency may lead to the development of gynecomastia and feminine fat accumulation (typically in the lower body). Excess testosterone is more dangerous for women, leading to menstrual cycle disorders, ovulation slowing or cessation, and infertility.

Synonyms for Testosterone:
Synonyms are words used as alternatives to the keyword. In this context, synonyms for “testosterone” include “androgenic steroid hormone,” “testosterone,” “total testosterone,” and “general testosterone.”

Indications for Testing:
Blood tests for testosterone are important for both men and women. Common reasons include:

  • Infertility
  • Decreased sexual desire
  • Hair loss
  • Acne and psoriasis
  • Anemia due to bone marrow deficiency
  • Tumors in the adrenal gland or suspected presence
  • Signs of intermediate pituitary gland syndrome during sexual maturation

Normal Concentration:
Units: Nanomoles per liter (nmol/L).

CategoryAge/SexTestosterone Range (nmol/L)
MenLess than 1 year0.42 – 0.72
Men1–7 years0.1 – 1.12
Men7–13 years0.1 – 2.37
Men13–18 years0.98 – 38.5
Men19–50 years8.64 – 29
MenOver 50 years6.68 – 25.7
Women6–10 years0.07 – 0.69
Women18–50 years0.29 – 1.67
WomenOver 50 years0.1 – 1.42


  • Testosterone levels vary during sexual maturation.
  • During adolescence, it is preferable to use a testosterone level chart based on Tanner stages.
  • Low testosterone levels in men may indicate disorders such as testicular atrophy or hormonal imbalances.
  • Increased testosterone levels may be associated with diseases such as testicular or ovarian tumors, or early sexual maturation.
  • Medications should be taken into account when interpreting test results.

Additional Testing for Testosterone Imbalance:
Upon discovering a deviation in testosterone levels from the normal range, it is recommended to consult an endocrinologist (for men), a gynecologist (for women), or a urologist. Additional tests may include:

  • FSH, LH (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone): to examine ovarian and testicular functions.
  • Free testosterone: measures testosterone not bound to proteins.
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone: helps evaluate adrenal gland activity.
  • SHBG (sex hormone-binding globulin): contributes to hormone balance examination.
  • For men, a semen analysis and ultrasound examination of the testicles are preferred. As for women, an ultrasound examination of the reproductive organs is recommended. If necessary, tests can be directed towards the adrenal glands and radiography of the pelvic area, among other examinations.